VOYAGES

OF THE

ADVENTURE AND BEAGLE.

VOLUME I.

\?^lf\ 'ir t\ (G (CD W U A

i'uUTji-EdTa/ 11

NARRATIVE

OF THK

SURVEYING VOYAGES

OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS

ADVENTURE AND BEAGLE,

BETWEEN

THE YEARS 1826 AND 1836,

DESCRIBING THEIR

EXAMINATION OF THE SOUTHERN SHORES

or

SOUTH AMERICA,

AND

LONDON:

HENRY COLBURN, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET.

1839,

hid. M ^ . ^ ^

LONDON:

Printed by J. L. Cox and Sons, T'f, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn Fields.

VOLUME I.

PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE FIRST EXPEDITION,

1836—1830,

UNDER THE COMMAND OK

CAPTAIN P. PARKER KING, R. N., F.R.S.

TO

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

THE EARL OF MINTO, G.C.B.,

FIRST LORD COMMISSIONER

or THE

ADMIRALTY.

MY LORD:

I have the honour of dedicating to your lordship, as Head of the Naval Service, this narrative of the Surveying Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836.

Originated by the Board of Admiralty, over which Viscount Melville presided, these voyages have been carried on, since 1830, under his lord- ship's successors in office.

Captain King has authorized me to lay the results of the Expedition which he commanded, from 1826 to 1830, before your lordship, united to those of the Beagle's subsequent voyages.

I have the honour to be,

MY LORD,

Your lordship's obedient servant,

ROBERT FIJZ-ROY.

PREFACE.

In this Work, the result of nine years'* voyaging, partly on coasts little known, an attempt has been made to combine giving general information with the paramount object that of fulfilling a duty to the Admiralty, for the benefit of Seamen.

Details, purely technical, have been avoided in the narrative more than I could have wished ; but some are added in the Appendix to each volume : and in a nautical memoir, drawn up for the Admiralty, those which are here omitted will be found.

There are a few words used frequently in the following pages, which may not at first sight be familiar to every reader, therefore I need hardly apologize for saying that, although the great Portuguese navigator^s name was Magalhaens it is generally pronounced as if written Magellan : that the natives of Tierra del Fuego are commonly called Fuegians; and that Childe is thus accented for reasons given in page 384 of the second volume.

In the absence of Captain King, who has entrusted to me the care of publishing his share of this work, I may have overlooked errors which he would have detected. Being hurried, and unwell, while attending to the printing of his volume, I was not able to do it j ustice.

X

PREFACE.

It may be a subject of regret, that no paper on the Botany of Tierra del Fuego is appended to the first volume. Captain King took great pains in forming and preserving a botanical collection, aided by a person embarked solely for that purpose. He placed this collection in the British Museum, and was led to expect that a first-rate botanist would have examined and described it ; but he has been disappointed.

In conclusion, I beg to remind the reader, that the work is unavoidably of a rambling and very mixed character ; that some parts may be wholly uninteresting to most readers, though, perhaps, not devoid of interest to all ; and that its publication arises solely from a sense of duty.

ROBERT riTZ-ROY.

London, March 1839.

INTRODUCTION.

In 1825, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty directed two ships to be prepared for a Survey of the Southern Coasts of South America ; and in May, of the following year, the Adventure and the Beagle were lying in Plymouth Sound, ready to carry the orders of their Lordships into execution.

These vessels were well provided with every necessary, and every comfort, which the liberality and kindness of the Admiralty, Navy Board, and officers of the Dock-yards, could cause to be furnished.

On board the Adventure, a roomy ship, of 330 tons burthen, without guns,* lightly though strongly rigged, and very strongly built, were

Phillip Parker King, Commander and Surveyor, Senior

Officer of the Expedition. J, CooKE

B. AiNSWORTH .....

J. Tarn

Lieutenant.

Master.

Surgeon.

* Excepting- one for signals.

xii

INTRODUCTION.

G. RowLETT Purser. '

R. H. Sholl Mate.

J. C. WicKHAM Mate.

J. F, Brand Mate.

T. Graves Mate and Assistant Surveyor.

G. Harrison Mate.

E. Williams Second Master.

J. Park Assistant Surgeon.

W. W. Wilson Midshipman.

A. Millar Master's Assistant.

A. Mellersh Volunteer 1st Class.

J. Russell Volunteer 2d Class.

G. HoDGSKiN Clerk.

J. Anderson Botanical Collector.

Gunner Boatswain and Carpenter.

Serjeant and fourteen Marines ; and about forty Seamen and Boys.

In the Beagle, a well-bailt little vessel, of 235 tons, rigged as a barque, and carrying six guns, were

Pringle Stokes Commander and Surveyor.

> E. Ha WES Lieutenant.

W. G. Skyring Lieut, and Assist. Surveyor.

S. S. Flinn Master.

E. BowEN Surgeon.

J. Atrill Purser.

J. Kirke Mate.

B. Bynoe Assistant Surgeon.

J. L. Stokes Midshipman.

R. F. Lunie Volunteer 1st Class.

W. Jones Volunteer 2d Class.

J. Macdouall Clerk.

Carpenter.

Serjeant and nine Marines ; and £^bout forty Seamen and Boys.

INTRODUCTION.

xiii

In the course of the voyage, several changes occurred among the officers, which it may be well to mention here.

In September, 1826, Lieutenant Hawes inva- lided : and was succeeded by Mr. R. H. Sholl, the senior mate in the Expedition.

In February, 1827, Mr. Ainsworth was unfortu- nately drowned; and, in his place, Mr. Williams acted, until superseded by Mr. S. S. Flinn, of the Beagle.

Lieutenant Cooke invalided in June, 1827 ; and was succeeded by Mr. J. C. Wickham.

In the same month Mr. Graves received infor- mation of his promotion to the rank of Lieutenant.

Between May and December, 1827, Mr. Bowen and Mr. Atrill invalided ; besides Messrs. Lunie, Jones, and Macdouall : Mr. W. Mogg joined the Beagle, as acting Purser ; and Mr. D. Brail y, as volunteer of the second class.

Mr. Bynoe acted as Surgeon of the Beagle, after Mr. Bowen left, until December, 1828.

In August, 1828, Captain Stokes's lamented vacancy was temporarily filled by Lieutenant Sky- ring ; whose place was taken by Mr. Brand.

Mr. Flinn was then removed to the Adventure ; and Mr. A. Millar put into his place.

XIV INTRODUCTION.

In December, 1828, the Commander-in-chief of the Station (Sir Robert Waller Otway) superseded the temporary arrangements of Captain King, and appointed a commander, lieutenant, master, and surgeon to the Beagle. Mr. Brand then invalided, and the lists of officers stood thus

Adventure (1828-30).

Phillip Parker King, Commander and Surveyor, Senior Officer of the Expedition.

T. Graves Lieut, and Assist. Surveyor.

J. C. WiCKHAM Lieutenant.

S. S. Flinn Master.

J. Tarn Surgeon.

G. RowLETT Purser.

G. Harrison Mate.

W.W.Wilson.. Mate.

E. Williams Second Master.

J. Park Assistant Surgeon.

A. Mellersh Midshipman.

A. Millar Master's Assistant.

J.Russell Volunteer 2d Class.

G. HoDGSKiN Clerk.

J. Anderson Botanical Collector.

Gunner -Boatswain and Carpenter.

Serjeant and fourteen Marines : and about fifty* Seamen and Boys.

Beagle (1828-30).

Robert FiTZ-RoY ... Commander and Surveyor. W. G. Skyring ...... Lieut, and Assist. Surveyor.

J. Kempe Lieutenant.

M.Murray ............ Master.

* Twelve additional seamen having- been ordered, by the Admiralty, for the Adelaide schooner.

INTRODUCTION,

XV

J. Wilson Surgeon.

W. MoGG (Acting) Purser.

J. KiRKE Mate.

B. Bynoe Assistant Surgeon.

J. L. Stokes Midshipman.

J. May Carpenter.

D. Braily Volunteer 2d Class.

J. Megget Clerk.

Serjeant and nine Marines : and about forty Seamen and Boys.

In June, 1829, Lieutenant Mitchell joined the Adventure; and in February, 1830, Mr. A.Millar died very suddenly : and very much regretted .

The following Instructions were given to the Senior Officer of the Expedition.

" By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

" Whereas we think fit that an accurate Survey should be made of the Southern Coasts of the Peninsula of South America, from the southern entrance of the River Plata, round to Chiloe ; and of Tierra del Fuego ; and whereas we have been induced to repose confidence in you, from your conduct of the Surveys in New Holland ; we have placed you in the command of His Majesty's Surveying Vessel the Adventure ; and we have directed Captain Stokes, of His Majesty's Survey- ing Vessel the Beagle, to follow your orders.

Both these vessels are provided with all the

Xvi INTRODUCTION.

means which are necessary for the complete execu- tion of the object above-mentioned, and for the health and comfort of their Ships' Companies. You are also furnished with all the information, we at present possess, of the ports which you are to survey; and nine Government Chronometers have been em- barked in the Adventure, and three in the Beagle, for the better determination of the Longitudes.

" You are therefore hereby required and directed, as soon as both vessels shall be in all respects ready, to put to sea with them ; and on your way to your ulterior destination, you are to make, or call at, the following places, successively ; namely ; Madeira : TenerifFe : the northern point of St. Antonio, and the anchorage at St. Jago ; both in the Cape Verd Islands : the Island of Trinidad, in the Southern Atlantic : and Rio de Janeiro : for the purpose of ascertaining the differences of the longitudes of those several places.

" At Rio de Janeiro, you will receive any supplies you may require ; and make with the Commander- in-chief, on that Station, such arrangements as may tend to facilitate your receiving further supplies, in the course of your Expedition.

" After which, you are to proceed to the entrance of the River Plata, to ascertain the longitudes of the Cape Santa Maria, and Monte Video : you are then to proceed to survey the Coasts, Islands, and Straits ; from Cape St. Antonio, at the south side

INTRODUCTION.

xvii

of the River Plata, to Chiloe; on the west coast of America ; in such manner and order, as the state of the season, the information you may have re- ceived, or other circumstances, may induce you to adopt.

You are to continue on this service until it shall be completed ; taking every opportunity to commu- nicate to our Secretary, and the Commander-in- Chief, your proceedings : and also, whenever you may be able to form any judgment of it, where the Commander-in-Chief, or our Secretary, may be able to communicate with you.

In addition to any arrangements made with the Admiral, for recruiting your stores, and provisions ; you are, of course, at liberty to take all other means, which may be within your reach, for that essential purpose.

You are to avail yourself of every opportunity of collecting and preserving Specimens of such objects of Natural History as may be new, rare, or interesting ; and you are to instruct Captain Stokes, and all the other Officers, to use their best diligence in increasing the Collections in each ship : the whole of which must be understood to belong to the Public.

In the event of any irreparable accident happen- ing to either of the two vessels, you are to cause the officers and crew of the disabled vessel to be

b

xviii

INTRODUCTION.

removed into the other, and with her, singly, to proceed in prosecution of the service, or return to England, according as circumstances shall appear to require ; understanding that the officers and crews of both vessels are hereby authorized, and required, to continvie to perform their duties, according to their respective ranks and stations, on board either vessel to which they may be so removed. Should, unfortunately, your own vessel be the one disabled, you are in that case to take the command of the Beagle: and, in the event of any fatal accident hap- pening to yourself; Captain Stokes is hereby au- thorized to take the command of the Expedition ; either on board the Adventure, or Beagle, as he may prefer ; placing the officer of the Expedition who may then be next in seniority to him, in com- mand of the second vessel : also, in the event of your inability, by sickness or otherwise, at any period of this service, to continue to carry the Instructions into execution, you are to transfer them to Captain Stokes, or to the surviving officer then next in command to you, who is hereby required to execute them, in the best manner he can, for the attainment of the object in view.

" When you shall have completed the service, or shall, from any cause, be induced to give it up ; you will return to Spithead with all convenient expedi- tion ; and report your arrival, and proceedings, to our Secretary, for our information.

mrRODUCTION.

xix

" Whilst on the South American Station, you are to consider yourself under the command of the Admiral of that Station; to whom we have expressed our desire that he should not interfere with these orders, except under peculiar neces- sity.

Given under our hands the 16th of May 1826. (Signed) " Melville.

" G. COCKBURN.

To Phillip P. King, Esq., Commander of His Majesty's Surveying Vessel Adventure, at Plymouth.

By command of their Lordships.

(Signed) - J. W. Croker."

On the 22d of May, 1826, the Adventure and Beagle sailed from Plymouth ; and, in their way to Rio de Janeiro, called successively at Madeira, Teneriffe, and vSt. Jago.

Unfavourable weather prevented a boat being sent ashore at the northern part of San Antonio; but observations were made in Terrafal Bay, on the south-west side of the island : and, after crossing the Equator, the Trade- wind hung so much to the southward, that Trinidad could not be approached without a sacrifice of time, which, it was consi- dered, might be prejudicial to more important objects of the Expedition.

Both ships anchoi^ed at Rio de Janeiro on the

b 2

XX

INTRODUCTION.

10th of August, and remained there until the 2d of October, when they sailed to the River Plata.

In Maldonado,* their anchors were dropped on the 13th of the same month ; and, till the 12th of November, each vessel was employed on the north side of the river, between Cape St. Mary and Monte Video.

* On the north side of the river Plata.

CONTENTS.

VOLUME 1.

CHAPTER I.

VAGE

Departure from Monte Video Port Santa Elena Geologi- cal remarks Cape Fairweather Non-existence of Chalk Natural History Approach to Cape Virgins, and the Strait of Magalhaens (or Magellan) 1

CHAPTER 11.

Enter the Strait of Magalhaens (or Magellan), and anchor off Cape Possession First Narrow Gregory Bay Pata- gonian Indians Second Narrow Elizabeth Island Freshwater Bay Fuegian Indians Arrival at Port Famine 1 2

CHAPTER III.

Prepare the Beagle, and a decked boat (the Hope) for sur- veying the Strait Beagle sails westward, and the Hope towards the south-east Sarmiento's Voyage and des- cription of the colony formed by him at Port Famine Steamer Duck Large trees Parroquets Mount Tarn- Barometrical observations Geological character Report of the Hope's cruise 26

CHAPTER IV.

Deer seen Hope sails again Eagle Bay Gabriel Channel * Williwaws ' Port Waterfall Natives Admiralty Sound Gabriel Channel Magdalen Channel Hope re- turns to Port Famine San Antonio Lomas Bay Loss of boat Master and two seamen drowned 48

xxii

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

PAGE

Lieutenant ShoU arrives Beagle returns Loss of the Saxe Coburg sealer Captain Stokes goes to Fury Harbour to save her Crew Beagle's proceedings Bougainville's me- morial— Cordova's memorial Beagle's danger Difficul- ties— Captain Stokes's boat-cruise Passages ^Natives Dangerous service ^Western entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens Hope's cruise Prepare to return to Monte Video 65

CHAPTER VL

Trees Leave Port Famine Patagonians Gregory Bay Bysante Maria Falkner's account of the Natives Indians seen on the borders of the Otway Water, in 1829 Maria visits the Adventure Religious ceremony Pata- gonian Encampment Tomb of a Child ^Women's em- ployment— Children Gratitude of a Native Size of Patagonians Former accounts of their gigantic height Character Articles for barter Fuegians living with Patagonians Ships sail Arrive at Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro 84

CHAPTER VII.

Leave Rio de Janeiro Santos S*.^ Catharina Monte Video Purchase the Adelaide schooner, for a Tender to the Adventure Leave Monte Video Beagle goes to Port Desire Shoals off Cape Blanco Bellaco Rock Cape

Virgins Possession Bay First Narrow Race Gregory Bay View Tomb Traffic with Natives Cordial meet- ing— Maria goes on board Natives intoxicated Laredo Bay Port Famine 106

CHAPTER VIII.

Find that the Cutter had been burned Anxiety for the Bea- gle— Uxbridge Sealer Beagle arrives Her cruise Bel- laco Rock San Juhan—Santa Cruz Gallegos Adeona

CONTENTS.

XX 111

Death of Lieutenant ShoU Adelaide sails Supposed Channel of San Antonio Useless Bay Natives Port San Antonio Humming-birds Fuegians Beagle sails Sarmiento Roldan Pond Whales Structure Scenery— Port Gallant 118

CHAPTER IX.

Detention in Port Gallant Humming-birds in snow showers Fuegians Geological remarks Canoes Car- ving— Birds Fish Shag Narrows Glaciers Avalan- ches— Natives Climate Winter setting in Adelaide loses a boat Floods Lightning Scurvy Adelaide's survey ^Bougainville Harbour Indians cross the Strait, and visit Port Famine Seahng vessels sail Scurvy in- creases— Adelaide sent for guanaco meat Return of the Beagle Captain Stokes very ill Adelaide brings meat from the Patagonians Death of Captain Stokes 133

CHAPTER X.

Account of the Beagle's cruise Borja Bay Cape Quod Stuart Bay Cape Notch Remarks on weather, and errors of Chart Evangelists Santa Lucia Madre de Dios Gulf of Trinidad Port Henry Puma's track Humming-birds Very bad weather Campana Island Dangers Gale Wet Sick Santa Barbara Wager's beam Wigwams Guaineco Islands Cape Tres Montes St. Paul Port Otway Hoppner Sound Cape Raper 154

CHAPTER XI.

Leave Port Otway San Quintin Sound -Gulf of Penas Kelly Harbour St. Xavier Island Death of Serjeant Lyndsey Port Xavier Ygnacio Bay Channel's mouth Bad weather Perilous situation Lose the yawl Sick list Return to Port Otway Thence to Port Famine Gregory Bay Natives Guanaco meat Skunk Con- dors— ^Brazilians Juanico Captain Foster Changes of officers , 173

xxiv

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIL

PAGE

Adventure sails from Rio de Janeiro to the River Plata Gorriti Maldonado Extraordinary Pampero Beagle's losses Ganges arrives another Pampero Go up the river for water Gale, and consequent detention Sail from Montevideo part from Consorts Port Desire Tower Rock Skeletons Sea Bear Bay Fire Guanacoes Port Desire Inlet Indian graves Vessels separate Captain Foster Chanticleer Cape Horn Kater Peak Sail from St. Martin Cove Tribute to Captain Foster Valparaiso Santiago- Pinto Heights Chiloe— Aldunate 189

CHAPTER XIII.

Beagle and Adelaide anchor in Possession Bay ^Beagle passes the First Narrovr Fogs Pecket Harbour Ade- laide arrives with Guanaco meat Portuguese Seamen Peculiar Hght Party missing Return Proceed towards Port Famine Fuegians Lieut. Skyring Adelaide sails to survey Magdalen and Barbara Channels Views Lyell Sound Kempe Harbour Cascade Bay San Pedro Sound Port Gallant Diet Rain Awnings Boat cruise Warning Jerome Channel Blanket bags Otway Water Frequent rain Difficulty in lighting fires 212

CHAPTER XIV.

Place for a Settlement Frost Boats in danger Narrow escape Sudden change Beagle Hills Fuegian Painting Tides Medicine Water warmer than the air Jerome Channel Mr. Stokes returns to the Beagle Cape Quod Snov^y Sound Whale Sound Choiseul Bay Return to the Beagle Adelaide returns Plan of operations Difficulties removed Preparations Wear and tear of clothing Ascend the Mountain de la Cruz Sail from Port GaUant Tides Borja Bay Cape Quod Gulf of Xaultegua Frost and snow Meet Adelaide Part Enter Pacific Arrive at Chiloe 230

CONTENTS,

XXV

CHAPTER XV.

PAGE

Extracts from the Journals of Lieutenants Skyring and Graves Magdalen Channel Keats Sound Mount Sar- miento Barrow Head Cockburn Channel Prevalence of south-west winds Melville Sound Ascent of Mount Skyring Memorial Cockburn and Barbara Channels Mass of Islets and Rocks Hewett Bay Cypress trees useful Adelaide rejoins Beagle in Port Gallant Captain King's narrative resumed Plan of future proceedings Adelaide arrives at Chiloe Abstract of Lieutenant Sky- ring's account of her proceedings Smyth Channel Mount Burney 'Ancon sin Salida' Natives Kirke Narrow Guia Narrow Peculiar tides Indians in plank Canoes Passage to Chiloe 25 1

CHAPTER XVI.

Chiloe Its probable importance Valdivia founds seven Cities ; afterwards destroyed by the Indians Migration of Spanish settlers Province and Islands of Chiloe Dis- tricts and population Government Defence Winds Town Durability of wooden Buildings Cultivation Want of industry Improvement Dress Habits of lower Classes Morality Schools Language Produce Manufactures Exports and imports Varieties of wood Aler se Roads Piraguas Ploughs Corn Potatoes Contributions Birds Shell-fish Medical practitioners Remedies Climate 269

CHAPTER XVII.

Chiloe the last Spanish possession in South America Freyre's Expedition Failure Second Expedition under Freyre and Blanco Quintanilla's capitulation Chiloe taken Aldunate placed in command Chiloe a dependency of Chile Beagle sails to sea coast of Tierra del Fuego Adelaide repaired Adelaide sails Adventure goes to

xxvi

C O N T E N T S.

Valparaiso Juan Fernandez Fishery Goats Dogs Geology Botany Shells Spanish accounts Anson's voyage ^Talcahuano Concepcion Pinoleo Araucanian Indians Re-enter the Strait of Magalhaens Fuegians 298

CHAPTER XVIII.

Adelaide's last cruise Port Otway San Quintin Marine Islands Unknown river or passage San Tadeo Isthmus of Ofqui San Rafael Sufferings and route of Wager's party Channel's Mouth Byron Cheap Elliot Hamilton Campbell Indian Cacique Passage of the Desecho Osorio Xavier Island Jesuit Sound Kirke's report Night tides Guaianeco Islands Site of the Wager's wreck Bulkely and Cummings Speedwell Bay Indigenous wild Potato Mesier Channel Fatal Bay Death of Mr. Millar Fallos Channel Lieutenant Sky- ring's illness ^English Narrow Fish ^Wigwams In- dians— Level Bay Brazo Ancho Eyre Sound Seal Icebergs Walker Bay Nature of the Country Habits of the Natives Scarcity of population 323

CHAPTER XIX.

Sarmiento Channel Ancon sin Salida -Cape Earnest Canal of the Mountains Termination of the Andes Kirke Narrow Easter Bay Disappointment Bay Ob- struction Sound Last Hope Inlet Swans Coots Deer River Lagoon Singular Eddies Passage of the Narrow ^Arrival at Port Famine Zoological remarks 34)6

CHAPTER XX.

Beagle sails from San Carlos Enters Strait Harbour of Mercy Cape Pillar Apostles Judges Landfall Island Cape Gloucester Dislocation Harbour Week Islands Fuegians Latitude Bay Boat's crew in distress Petrel Passages Otway Bay- Cape Tate Fincham Is-

CONTENTS. XXvii

PAGE

lands Deepwater Sound Breaker Bay Grafton Islands Geological remarks Barbara Channel Mount Sky- ring Compasses affected Drawings Provisions Op- portunities lost 360

/

CHAPTER XXI.

Skyring's chart Noir Island Penguins Fuegians Sar- miento Townshend Harbour Horace Peaks Cape Desolation Boat lost Basket Search in Desolation Bay ^Natives Heavy Gale Surprise Seizure Conse- quences— Return to Beagle Sail to Stewart Harbour Set out again ^Escape of Natives Unavailing search Discomforts Tides Nature of Coast Doris Cove Christmas Sound Cook York-Minster March Har- bour— Build a boat Treacherous rocks Skirmish with the Natives Captives Boat Memory Petrel 386

CHAPTER XXII.

Mr. Murray returns Go to New Year Sound See Diego Ramirez Islands from Henderson Island Weddeil's Indian Cove— Sympiesometer Return to Christmas Sound Beagle sails Passes the Ildefonso and Diego Ramirez Islands Anchors in Nassau Bay Orange Bay Yapoos Mr. Murray discovers the Beagle Channel Numerous Natives Guanacoes Compasses affected Cape Horn Specimens Chanticleer Mistake about St. Francis Bay ^Diego Ramirez Islands Climate San Joachim Cove Barnevelt Isles Evouts Isle Lennox Harbour .. 417

CHAPTER XXIII.

Set out in boats Find Guanacoes Murray Narrow Birch Fungus Tide Channel Glaciers View Mountains Unbroken chain Passages Steam-vessels Jemmy But- ton— Puma Nest Accident Natives Murray's J our- nal Cape Graham Cape Kinnaird Spaniard Harbour

XXviii CONTENTS.

PAGE

Valentyn Bay Cape Good Success Natives Lennox Island Strait le Maire Good Success Bay Accident Tide race San Vicente San Diego Tides Soundings North-East Coast San Sebastian Reflections Port Desire Monte Video Santa Catharina Rio de Janeiro 438

CHAPTER XXIV.

A few Nautical remarks upon the passage round Cape Horn ; and upon that through the Strait of Magalhaens, or Ma- gellan 463

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER

FOR PLACING THE PLATES,

VOLUME I.

Map of South America . . . . . . . . . . Loose.

Strait of Magalhaens . . . . . . . . . . . . Loose.

'^"Patag'oniaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece.

v/'Monte Video .. .. .. .. .. .. to face page 1

•«*^Distant View of Mount Sarmiento (with two other views) . . 26

v^urious Peak Admiralty Sound (with other views) . . . . 52

--''Patagonian ' toldo ' and tomb .. .. .. 94

^ Monte Video Mole 105

Rio de Janeiro .. .. .. .. .. .. lOfi

^'Fuegian Wigwams at Hope Harbour, in the Magdalen Channel 126 1/ Monte Video Custom-House .. .. .. .. .. 187

i/ Corcovado Mountain .. .. .. .. .. 188

^ Mount Sarmiento 252

K^San Carlos de Chil6e 275

,/ Breast Ploughing in Chiloe .. .. .. .. .. 287

,/Point Arena Chil6e (with other views) .. .. .. 300

)/ South West opening of Cockburn Channel (with views of Head- lands) . . 407

?/Wollaston Island, near Cape Horn .. .. .. .. 433

V Chart of a part of South America, by Captain P. P. King . . 463

Note. The loose Plates are to be folded into pockets in the covers of

the volumes.

ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA.

Page 76. line 4 from bottom, /or lying, read being.

118, Heading, line 4, /or Beagle sailed, read Beagle sails.

123, line 17, insert narrow, before and shoal.

164, line 23, instead o/the, read our.

174, line 6, /or cuts, read cut.

193, line 5, for have, read had.

223, (Note) line 2 from bottom, for they, read he.

229, line 9, for was, read were.

265, line 8, after day, mserf a colon instead of a comma. 273, line 21, after as well, insert as.

301, line 23, /or Lieutenants Skyring and Graves again took with them, read Lieutenant

Skyring again took with him. 411, line 2, dele the. 437, line 16, /or contiue. read continue,

line 19, for wit, read with.

462, line 21, for Santa Catalina, read Santa Catharlna. 473, line 17, after which is, insert a. 431, bottom line, /or 53. 32 . 30, read 53. r>2. 30. 485, line 7, (of positions) for 53. 31, read 53. 51.

bottom line, /or 11. 51, read 3. 26.

488, line 9, for Northern, read Southern.

489, line 4 from bottom, for 46. 03, read 46. 30 ; and for 40. 50, read 40. 05.

490, hne 6, for 50", read 49°.

491, line 6, /or 35. 56, read 36. 16.

493, line 9, for 54. 30. 00, read 54. 05. 20 ; and/or 7^. 1 . .30, read 73. 25. 30. 52Q,for Variation, read Dip.

MAMMALIA. 529, line 8, /or Harlau read Harlan, .531, line 6, /or Keroda read Kerodon.

BIRDS.

532, line 1, for Dum^rel, read Dum^ril.

line 7. for Miloago, read Milvago.

line 19, for Sparoerius, read Sparverius.

533, line 16, dele Spix.

bottom line, for Silvia, read Sylvia, and in next page the same.

534, line 12, dele Fursa, Veillot.

line 10 from bottom, /or Smaragdimis, read Smaragdinus.

536, line 9 from bottom, /or Strutheo, read Struthio.

line 6 from bottom, for rinacea, read binacea.

537, line 14, /or Totamus, read Totanus.

538, line 5, for subtas, read subtus.

lower lines, where Hoematopus occurs, read H^matopus.

540, last line, for meneque, read mineque; and for parie, read parce.

541, line 12, /or Catarrhoctes, read Catarrhactes.

line 2 from bottom, for ud, read ad. 543, line 13, for gracillimus, read g-racillimis.

SHELLS.

545, last line, for hrachyptera, read brachypterus ; for Pataclwniea, read PatacJumicns.

SURVEYING VOYAGES

OF THE

ADVENTURE and the BEAGLE, 1826—1830.

CHAPTER I.

Departure from JNIonte Video Port Santa Elena Geological remarks Cape Fairvveatber Non-existence of Chalk Natural History Approach to Cape Virgins, and the Strait of Magalhaens (or Magellan).

We sailed from Monte Video on the 19th of November 18^6 ; and, in company with the Beagle, quitted the river Plata.

According to my Instructions, the Survey was to commence at Cape San Antonio, the southern limit of the entrance of the Plata ; but, for the following urgent reasons, I decided to begin with the southern coasts of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego, including the Straits of Magalhaens."^ In the first place, they presented a field of great interest and novelty ; and secondly, the climate of the higher southern latitudes being so severe and tempestuous, it appeared important to encounter its rigours while the ships were in good condition while the crews were healthy and while the charms of a new and diffi- cult enterprize had full force.

* Commonly called Magellan. See p. 11. VOL. I. B

2

PORT SANTA ELENA.

Nov. 1826.

Our course was therefore southerly, and in latitude 45° south, a few leagues northward of Port Santa Elena, we first saw the coast of Patagonia. I intended to visit that port ; and, on the 28th, anchored, and landed there.

Seamen should remember that a knowledge of the tide is of especial consequence in and near Port Santa Elena. During a calm we were carried by it towards reefs which line the shore, and were obliged to anchor until a breeze sprung up.

The coast along which we had passed, from Point Lobos to the north-east point of Port Santa Elena, appeared to be dry and bare of vegetation. There were no trees ; the land seemed to be one long extent of undulating plain, beyond which were high, flat-topped hills of a rocky, precipitous character. The shore was fronted by rocky reefs extend- ing two or three miles from high-water mark, which, as the tide fell, were left dry, and in many places were covered with seals.

As soon as we had secured the ships. Captain Stokes accom- panied me on shore to select a place for our observations. We found the spot which the Spanish astronomers of Malas- pina's Voyage (in 1798) used for their observatory, the most convenient for our purpose. It is near a very steep shingle (stony) beach at the back of a conspicuous red-coloured, rocky projection which terminates a small bay, on the western side, at the head of the port. The remains of a wreck, which proved to be that of an American whaler, the Decatur of New York, were found upon the extremity of the same point ; she had been driven on shore from her anchors during a gale.

The sight of the wreck, and the steepness of the shingle beach just described, evidently caused by the frequent action of a heavy sea, did not produce a favourable opinion of the safety of the port : but as it was not the season for easterly gales, to which only the anchorage is exposed, and as appear- ances indicated a westerly wind, we did not anticipate danger.

While we were returning on board, the wind blew so strongly that we had much difficulty in reaching the ships, and the boats were no sooner hoisted up, and every thing

DSi

Nov. 1826.

FIRE GEOLOGY GUANACOES.

3

made snug, than it blew a hard gale from the S.W. The water however, from the wind being off the land, was perfectly smooth, and the ships rode securely through the night : but the following morning the gale increased, and veered to the southward, which threw a heavy sea into the port, placing us, to say the least, in a very uneasy situation. Happily it ceased at sunset. In consequence of the unfavourable state of the weather, no attempt was made to land in order to observe an eclipse of the sun ; to make which observation was one reason for visiting this port.

The day after the gale, while I was employed in making some astronomical observations, a party roamed about in quest of game : but with little success, as they killed only a few wild ducks. The fire which they made for cooking communicated to the dry stubbly grass, and in a few minutes the whole country was in a blaze. The flames continued to spread dur- ing our stay, and, in a few days, more than fifteen miles along the coast, and seven or eight miles into the interior were over- run by the fire. The smoke very much impeded our observa- tions, for at times it quite obscured the sun.

The geological structure of this part of the country, and a considerable portion of the coast to the north and south, consists of a fine-grained porphyritic clay slate. The summits of the hills near the coast are generally of a rounded form, and are paved, as it were, with small, rounded, siliceous pebbles, imbed- ded in the soil, and in no instance lying loose or in heaps ; but those of the interior are flat- topped, and uniform in height, for many miles in extent. The valleys and lower elevations, not- withstanding the poverty and parched state of the soil, were partially covered with grass and shrubby plants, which afford sustenance to numerous herds of guanacoes. Many of these animals were observed feeding near the beach when we were working into the bay, but they took the alarm, so that upon landing we only saw them at a considerable distance. In none of our excursions could we find any water that had not a brackish taste. Several wells have been dug in the valleys, both near the sea and at a considerable distance from it, by tlie

4

OYSTERS aUADRUPEDS.

Dec. 1826.

crews of sealing vessels ; but, except in the rainy season, they all contain saltish water. This observation is applicable to nearly the whole extent of the porphyritic country. Oyster- shells, three or four inches in diameter, were found, scattered over the hills, to the height of three or four hundred feet above the sea. Sir John Narborough, in 1652, found oyster-shells at Port San Julian; but, from a great many which have been lately collected there, we know that they are of a species different from that found at Port Santa Elena. Both are fossils.

No recent specimen of the genus Ostrea was found by us on any part of the Patagonian coast. Narborough, in noticing those at Port San Julian, says, " They are the biggest oyster- shells that I ever saw, some six, some seven inches broad, yet not one oyster to be found in the harbour : whence I conclude they were here when the world was formed."

The short period of our visit did not enable us to add much to natural history. Of quadrupeds we saw giianacoes, foxes, cavies, and the armadillo ; but no traces of the puma ( Felis cojicoloi'), or South American lion, although it is to be met with in the interior.

I mentioned that a herd of guanacoes was feeding near the shore when we arrived. Every exertion was made to obtain some of the animals ; but, either from their shyness, or our igno- rance of the mode of entrapping them, we tried in vain, until the arrival of a small sealing-vessel, which had hastened to our assistance, upon seeing the fires we had accidentally made, but w^hich her crew thought were intended for signals of distress. They shot two, and sent some of the meat on board the Adven- ture. The next day, Mr. Tarn succeeded in shooting one, a female, which, when skinned and cleaned, weighed 168 lbs. Narborough mentions having killed one at Port San Julian, that weighed, " cleaned in his quarters, 268 lbs."' The watch- ful and wary character of this animal is very remarkable. Whenever a herd is feeding, one is posted, like a sentinel, on a height ; and, at the approach of danger, gives instant alarm by a loud neigh, when away they all go, at a hand-gallop, to the next eminence, where they quietly resume their feeding,

Dec. 1826.

NATURAL HISTORY.

until again warned of the approach of danger by thaeir ^^igilant ' look-out.'

Another peculiarity of the guanaco is, the habit of resorting to particular spots for natural purposes. This is mentioned in the ' Dictionnaire d*Histoire Naturelle,'' in the ' Encyclopedic Methodique,' as well as other works.

In one place we found the bones of thirty-one guanacoes collected within a space of thirty yards, perhaps the result of an encampment of Indians, as evident traces of them were observed ; among which were a human jaw-bone, and a piece of agate ingeniously chipped into the shape of a spear-head.

The fox, which we did not take, appeared to be small, and similar to a new species afterwards found by us in the Strait of Magalhaens.

The cavia* (or, as it is called by Narborough, Byron, and Wood, the hare, an animal from which it differs both in appear- ance and habits, as well as flavour), makes a good dish ; and so does the armadillo, which our people called the shell-pig."]- This little animal is found abundantly about the low land, and lives in burrows underground ; several were taken by the seamen, and, when cooked in their shells, were savoury and wholesome.

Teal were abundant upon the marshy grounds. A few par- tridges, doves, and snipes, a rail, and some hawks were shot. The few sea-birds that were observed consisted of two species of gulls, a grebe and a penguin {Aptenodytes Magellanica).

We found two species of snakes and several kinds of lizards. Fish were scarce, as were also insects ; of the last, our collec-

* Dasyprocta patacJionica : it is the Fatagonian cavy of Dr. Shaw, and Pennant's Quadr., tab. 39, and the luvt^e pumpa of D'Azara. M. Desma- rest thinks that if the teeth were examined it would form a new genus, for which he proposes the name of Dolichotis (Ency. Meth. Mamm. p. 359). At present he has, from its external character, placed it amongst the genus Dasyprocta (agouti). The oxAj one that was taken was not preserved, which prevented me from ascertaining the fact.

t Basypus minutus, Desm. Tatou pichiy, or tatou septieme of D'Azara, &c. &c. It has seven bands.

6

SHELLS BURIAL-PLACES.

Dec. 1826.

tions consisted only of a