q m+ pee Mists 4egt + Bs 7 ba ee. ~4 ini f ; ett ipipeie tre regeen st te taiy i mal sept esto pr reek Rae SL Fee Sotet se ieitge pede pe Sede st Secale Ser


& 100 ab.







P. J. SELBY, Esa., F.L.S., GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.D., CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esa., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh,






*«Qmnes res create sunt divine sapientie et potentie testes, divitie felicitatis humane :—ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper zstimata; 4 veré eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; malé doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.”— LINNZUsS.

Quelque soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu’ouvrir les yeux pour voir qu'elle est le chef-d’ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent toutes ses opérations.” BRUCKNER, Théorie du Systéme Animal, Leyden, 1767.

oe hal wwe pers be pe deeb Lhe sylvan powers Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs That press with nimble step the mountain thyme And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, But scatter round ten thousand forms minute Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, Where peril waits the bold adventurer’s tread, The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, All, all to us unlock their secret stores And pay their cheerful tribute. J. Taytor, Norwich, 1818.

stasis) een CONTENTS OF VOL. XI.

: ne, a [SECOND SERIES. ]


Page I. Observations on the Solanaceae. By Joun Mixrs, Esq., F.R.S., i Sea en elsienee yas Zeb s oeRt ON, EVN ALD oe vn+ansssipeuctes ee aatahaaaans Soapace 1 II. Descriptions of some newly discovered species of Araneidea. By Joun Buackwatt, F.L.S. .........0e000 Siskuserisssatanrestgieupecetenscenee 14

III. Description of a new genus of Calanide. By Joun Lussock, © edie). “(Within Plate. 9. ctastet Jind ascses sauaail cablasadl odepeissp bruhyrsenanone 25 IV. Characters of several Helices from West Australia and the Mauritius ; with Notes on some species of Cyclostoma from Borneo. By, WH. BRGNSOM,GUSG. jservacacevanvecesscandssscaeenicnsccssseaccacceusescee 29 V. A Revision of the Genera of some of the Families of Conchifera or Bivalve Shells. By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S.&c. ... 33 VI. On the Ianthine, Scalaria, Natice, Lamellarie, and Velutine. By WILLIAM CLARK, Esq. .....eccsseseeseseseseeees Besncertarrpbacereses sue 44


- es he.

New Books :—A Popular History of British Zoophytes, by the Rev. Dy Landsborough, DiT)., ALS. Sc, seccenrsscerdarstsepanresceeduse 58

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edin- PURE I Seen oe a see ce Veilitnys vase tangtnasssboass sonixe sto 59—77


the Maladies produced by them on those trees in the Province of Nice and in the Department ofthe Var, by M. Robineau-Des- voidy ; Obituary—James Francis Stephens; Meteorological Ob- servations and Table ....cscssccscscceseeccevcccceccsssecccsscssecces 77/—80


VII. On Relative Position ; including a new Arrangement of Pha- _ nerogamous Plants:—Part I. On the Position of the Raphe. By B. Cuarke, F.L.S. &e. (With a Plate.) wsessccccccceneees davbacsWdazeaes 81



sof bserr Hien 95 the Solanacee.. By Joun, Musrs; Esq:,i00™ LS.

8 Eg 8 tah A Ld quaacdl of

IX, Deseriptions of species belonging, to the genera Pterocyclos and’ / Cyclostoma, from Ceylon and West Australia, By W. H. Benson, ) 9:1:

RERIs 2 aden taben aun Got deeuabany ae aegns cb aoapqcge ts dnvaaeenciee Ons cee sone JOD X. On the Animal of Chamostrea albida. By Aupany Hancock, Eiatiien ( Wahl bw PIRGOB,) tag. sxconce'sqpo ss gus qpse2seeqstsscacnemerneuel yoyo ny 406

XI, Supplement toa Catalogue of British Spiders, cluding remarks on their Structure, Functions, Giconomy, and Systematic Arrange- ment. By JOHN BLACKWALL, F.L.S. yecccosesepsenccrncscensconses » 13

XII. Observations on the Anatomy of Actinia. By T. SpENcER Cosso tp, M.D., Vice-President of the Physiological Society, Edin- PUWEP Diclovavanecetvarays doeasccssssqaqecesnsacecsceetunesteetsecee sseaatamne an 121

XIII. On the Division of Ctenobranchous Gasteropodous Mollusca into larger Groups and Families By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., , VB ee tas Ss Beeeeereccrevessaste SSeevteseraueetre Si ceveteeacens en 2

New Books :—On the Growth of Plants in Closely Glazed Cases, by DEB Ward PE FAG 2 FS cat ecectherecccacussonsscsensscssadungarann 134

Proceedings of the Linnean Society; Zoological Society; Cork Cu- WIESINN SOCIOLY> waveceeatstesyesnocett cecseavarten@eneseereeuaeeanes 135—157

On the Classification of Serpents, by M. C. Duméril; On the Influ- ence of Coal Gas upon Vegetation, by G. H. Ulex; On the Habits of the Wigeon, by Matthew Mogegridge; On the Relations be- tween the Oxygen consumed by the Spadix of Arum italicum and the Heat produced by it, by M. Garreau; Meteorological Obser- wate and: Table scseeussidsastiteie. tees as ces abaaeeaeeeaseneee «» 157—160


XIV. Descriptions of some of the larger Forms of Fossilized Fora- minifera in Scinde; with Observations on their Internal Structure. By H. J. Carrer, Esq., Assistant Surgeon, Bombay Establishment. (With. a Plate), 1...) oarhe + dry odiseb doo und da cear aosbanmussi ch -Laioisibdo head ... 161

XV. Further Notes on British Zoophytes, with descriptions of new Species. By the Rev. Toomas Hrncxs, B.A. (With two Plates.) . 178,

XVI. Observations on the Genus Schwenkia. By Joun Miers, MiACias Deca o.lavs vasientacssnssaseccuseay cs Jesus acesdecsceaseeetaeeeen oy 185


XVII. Observations on Relative Position ; including a new Avrange- re



at of -Phanerogamoiis Plants en TF ‘Othe Position of ’Catpels, ‘ap

By B. Cuarke, F.LS. &e. +... RELEGLREUESSEUbocsesassecbasescecscceersentee “is XVII, Note’ on ‘the Gryphea’ of the Bed called Gryphite Gait 5 in’

the Cotteswolds.' By Joun’ Lycert, UO Ae Pe ee - “XIX. On two new Subgenera of Calanide. By, Joun Lussocx, E

aa F.Z:S. © (With’a Plate.) oleae ce aeseeees cieenaccneers cee 202

“XX: On the Germination of the Resting Spores, and ona il of _ Moving’ Spores in’ aah By Dr. W. Patietetcii«" (With two Evstene DARE. ov FRET Es ee eco, eer eri cecoataesovaccsrocenens 210

XXII. Revision of the Families of Nudibranch Mollusks, with the

description of a new Genus of Phyllidiade. i An e. GRAY, ‘Ph.D., ©

FLR.Si: WiP.Z:Ss Bees eles 2 RE ties eatateeee, 218 XXII. Additional Notice of the genus Tancredia (Lycett), Het- on tangia (Turquem). By JouHn Lycert, Bsqe ....eeseeseeeeseenees Wantee ool

_XXUL Rambles in Ceylon. By Epear Leopotp sap Esq: 224 : New Books :—A History of British Birds, Indigenous and, Migratory; Illustrated by numerous Engravings, by Wilham MacGillivray;

4 Tonk cas Apa sassigth e Sukcgusde'es oven sab sesnans -Heexeaneihenmimee 236


Proceedings of the Zoological Society ......++sessesseeeeeyeios youve 244-259

Notice of a Binocular. Microscope, by J. L. Riddell ; On the genus Bifrontia, by J. E. Gray, Ph. D.; On a new Method of Iumma- ting Opake Objects, for the iets powers of the Microscope ; and on a new Achromatic Condenser, by J. L. Riddell; On: the Structure of the Cells of Plants ; Meteorological Observations and yi Table eencernecseesseseces eeceeee se eereereeescececcencsesaeueawinsserans 259—264


XXIV. Remarks upon British Plants. By Cuartes C. BaBING=) » ron, M.A., F.RS., BLS. 850, scnssvsopeeesenvepesnrsnsessgharhy AE 265

XXV, On the Chitonide,, By. Winuiam CLARK, Eisquii sis feed eebee ca XXVI. Additional Character of the Shell of the Cyclostomatous genus Alyceus of Gray, with descriptions of its Animal Inhabitant,—

ofa fourth species,—and of other, new) jIndian ;Cyclostomata;| also ~ Remarks on an unrecorded Character in Diplommatina. By, W., Hy,

é Xxvi On the Animal of Myochama anomioides. By ALBANY _ Hancock, Bisq! (With a Pate ec eeeeeteeeesenseneeneeneees 287


: Page XXVIII. On the Germination’ of the Resting Spores, and’ on’a’>’~

form of Moving Spores in Spirogyra. By Dr. W. PRINGSHEIM...... 292

XXIX. Description of Rhopalodina, a new form of Echinodermata, ¥ By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S, Se. seseseseeereees pas tc ancaae 301

XXX. Rambles in Ceylon. By Epcar Leopotp Layarp, Esq. 302

New Books :—Principles of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Ve- getable Cell, by Hugo von Moh] ; Translated by Arthur Henfrey, F.R.S. &c.—Handbuch der Conchyliologie und Malacozoologie, von Dr. R.A. Philippi; 2.c.s..s.ceipidecnsscccssessesserseceenes 314—316

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Dublin University Zoological Association ; Entomological Society ...scsscescsessecseseeeeeeeeceseeceeesoesenen 318—338

Note on Eucratea chelata, by John Coppin; Description of a new Genus and Species of Crustacea, by James Eights; On the Co- leopterous Insects of the genus Cebrio, by M. Guérin-Méneville ;

On the Reproduction of the Toad and Frog without the interme- diate stage of Tadpole, by Edward Joseph Lowe, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.; Meteorological Observations and Table ......... 339—344


XXXI. On the Occurrence of Palms and Bambus with Pines and other Forms considered Northern, at considerable elevations in the Himalaya. By Masor Mappen, H.E.I.C.S., F.R.S.E., M.R. Dublin

Society -cecsssssseceecesesesseeusesensceussescsaeneecseaaneneceaaeercaseeeaaaaes 345 XXXII. On the Genus Pachybathron, and on some new Species of Marginella. By J.S. GasKorn, Esq. (With a Plate.) «..-.-.--+++0+ 356 XXXIII. Remarks upon British Plants. By CHARruEs C. BABING- TON, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. & 0. ...scscccsccscccesccstsccesceetoucccoccssseus 360 XXXIV. On the Genera of the Tribe Duboisiee. By Joun MIERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. seccececeeeserecesseeeseseecnneeeeeesceneenasagecsteaserezes 368

XXXV. On Marine Vivaria. By Witu1am THompson, Esq. «.. 382 XXXVI. Rambles in Ceylon. By Epcar Leopoip LAyArD, Esq. 386

XXXVII. A Revision of the Genera of some of the Families of Conchifera or Bivalve Shells. By J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.RB.S., W Pi Sp Brli en esha «eb oF Fos cp cesar ekvapaes cdesaapeniesipsntruarenal oat oS

New Books :—Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, par M. F. E. Guérm- MMIEHEVILG: Uivurseriecsecesventosemancoss sensvcood ossnostsest ssn scepeewcetn Tem 402

CONTENTS. vu ve Page ad Be esicem af the Royal. Institution ;, Zoological Society, ....-+) A08—418 gece MIQH# ad .W a«G vi , On the Nervures of Leaves and ies, Distribution, by i von Te:

On the Occurrence of large’ quantities of ‘the Shells! of Anodonta

cygnea ou the sea-coast near Sandgate, by Francis Brent, Esq. ;

“oe Description ofja new genus of Gorgoniade, by J. KE. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S., P.B.S. &c.; Note on a new species of Francolin, by Dr. Nicholson, H.E.I.C. Medical Service ; Meteorological Observa- tions and Table ............ Mas ecdegducshice stu ese teettescra a near 418—424



XXXVIIL. Description of Orbitolites Malabarica (H. J.C.), illus- « trative of the Spiral and not Concentric Arrangement of Chambers in D’Orbigny’s Order Cyclostégues. By H.J. Carrer, Esq., Assistant

Surgeon, Bombay Establishment. (With a Plate.) .....cessecssseneees 425 q XXXIX. Remarks upon British Plants. By Caarues C. Basinc- 3 BOING GIVI, Mie EY EU, Sug Helaas., OcCoe sac reborn cinssuteuceienvseassaceisgis eh evses sae 427 4 XL. Further Observations on the Animal of Diplommatina (inclu- ding a Note by Capt. T. Hutton). By W. H. Banson, Esq. ......... 433 _ XLI. On the Genera of the Tribe Duboisiee. By Joun Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. .cccccccoes Beer RCs re ral a bed Ce nee 2 veeee 435

XLII. Notes on some British Zoophytes. By Wyv1LLz THomson, F.R.P.S. &c., Lecturer on Botany, Univ. and Marischal College,

gy Aberdeen. (With a Plate.) <.cc.ccocesnccsacccececcsccvcesccesecceccscccecees 442 y XLII. Observations on Relative Position ; including a new Arrange- , ment of Phanerogamous Plants. By B. Cuarxe,F.L.S. &e. (With three Plates.) .....ccessesseraeeers rap eshs ae Raeide ade canon Setelsoek ss an se.s50 444

- XLIV. On some points relating to the Structure and Mechanism of the Wolf-fish (Anarrhichas Lupus). By Epwarps Crisp, M.D. . 463 ck 4 :

_ Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- _.. burgh ; Entomological Society ...... Dyan Pipee > aap ates 466—481

On the Reproduction of Frogs and Toads without the intermediate

stage of Tadpole, by the Rev. L. Jenyns ; Reséarches ‘on the __ Fecundation and Formation of the Embryo in the Hepatice and

_ Ferns, by H. Philibert ; Mode of Determining the Optical Power

De of a Microscope, by Professor Harting of Utrecht ; Marine Vivaria,

by William Thompson ; Labidocera magna, by J. Lubbock ; Ob-

servations on the Anatomy of the Antennz in a small species of

Crustacean, by John D. M‘Donald, M.D., Assistant Surgeon to

H.M.S.V. Toreh 5 Meteorological Observations and Table. 482—490


Piate I. Labidocera Darwinii. II. Position of the Raphe and Carpel in Phanerogamous Plants.

oy Vv } Anatomy of Chamostrea albida.

VL 1 } New British Zoophytes. VII. Structure of the Foraminifera. u I. x. } Germination of Spirogyra.

= New species of Labidocera. XI. Anatomy of Myochama anomioides. XII. New species of Pachybathron and Marginella.

XIII. XIV. } positon of the Raphe and Carpel in Phanerogamous Plants.

XV. XVI. British Zoophytes—Orbitolites Malabarica,


Four Tables illustrative of Mr. B. Clarke’s paper on a New Arrangement of Phaneroganous Plants.

ERRATA. Vou. X. Page 269, line 14 from bottom, for externo read interno. , line 13 from bottom, after expanso insert externo. Vo. XI.

Page 31, line 11 from bottom, for this read fine.

33, line 4 from top, for Pneunopomorum read Pneumonopomorum. —— 46, line 4 from bottom, for columnari read columnare.

—— 57, line 16 from top, for Laminaria read Lamellaria.




§© ssesserseeresees DEF litOra spargite muscum, Naiades, et circdm vitreos considite fontes : Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : Floribus et pictum, dive, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nymphe Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata coralliatrunco 99) Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, Dew pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo.”” N. Parthenti Giannettasii Ecl, 1. *

No. 61. JANUARY 1853,

- 1.—Observations on the Solanacee, By Joun Mrurs, Esq., | iy FRS. FILS.”

Pe WG ia now (October 1852) more than two years since I suspended _ my observations on the Solanacee,-in expectation of the long promised monograph of M. Dunal, which has at length made its appearance in the 13th volume of the Prodromus’ of M. De- Candolle. Several of the genera belonging to this family, as well as most of the species that I have enumerated at different tervals, are there recorded; but as their respective affinities, heir distribution founded on peculiar features, and the diffe- ential characters of the divisions thus proposed, are not noticed the slightest degree, I feel myself called upon to make some arks on the subject. Considering how little was known of real limits of the genera of the Solanacee a few years ago, e of the confusion in which these were associated upon the ost irreconcileable data, as witnessed in the latest distribution he family in Endlicher’s ‘Genera Plantarum’ and Don’s ctionary,’ knowing that the species were ill-defined and ill- ified, and that a large proportion of undetermined plants vere amassed in every herbarium, for want of the means of their liscrimination, it was natural that a general satisfaction should Aun. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser.2. Vol. xi. 1

2 Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez.

be felt on the announcement, that M. Dunal was occupied in ela- borating a monograph of the family for the Prodromus.’ This ought, in regular order, to have preceded the Scrophulariacee, and to have appeared seven years ago: the intervening delay has therefore served only to increase a general anticipation of greater perfection in a work, proceeding from the hand of one who had written on the genera of the family and their affinities thirty-five years since, and who hat made this order an object of his study during a great portion of his life. It cannot be concealed that its appearance has not answered the universal expectation, and that a feeling of disappointment has been generally felt among botanists on its perusal. All will unite in their acknowledge- ment to M. Dunal for the production of this laborious work, and will willingly excuse a large share of its imperfections, when it is known, that in his anxious endeavours to bring it to a close, he has laboured beyond his physical powers, persevering in this task under the pressure of long and continued illness. Still it is to be regretted, that circumstances should have operated to keep its distinguished author in ignorance of. the facts and rea- sonings that have been published within the last few years. If, therefore, I now proceed to point out several inconsistencies in the distribution exhibited in this volume, I can truly affirm, that it is not from any desire to criticize the labours of M. Dunal, but to justify what is due to the advancement of science, and to sup- port the inferences drawn and the facts collected by me towards the history of this family.

The great object of all scientific arrangement is to group together individuals possessing some common conspicuous fea- tures, by which they may be readily distinguished: these may again be subdivided by other partial characters into sections and subsections, but all such characters should be clearly definable.

The ordinal character of the Solanaceae, as given by M. Dunal, like that of his predecessors, falls very far short of this deside- ratum, and the Conspectus of the classification is deficient of those tangible features that should serve the purpose of discri- mination. Its limits are by far too general, embracing within its scope individuals belonging to other orders. In the cha- racter of the corolla, for instance, the more important features are neglected or merely hinted at, while others more especially selected are frequent among Scrophulariacee and other orders : hence they are of little value for distinguishing the precise family to which species belong. In the characters given of the struc- ture of the seed and embryo, many peculiarities are altogether omitted, while others are inaccurately described: these will be more particularly noticed presently. In his Conspectus, M. Dunal divides the family into two tribes, the No/anee and the Solanea,

Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez: 8

the latter being separated into nine subtribes, which are marked by very insufficient characters, as I shall hereafter explam. Of these subtribes the most numerous in genera is the Solanee, signalized by three principal features ; 1. a regular corolla, an indication of little utility, as it exists equally in other tribes ; 2. a bilocular berry ; 3. a semicircular or spiral embryo, a feature also retained by other subtribes, and even here too its applica- bility as a test is rendered nugatory by the knowledge that Juanulloa and Marckea have a nearly straight embryo.

It is to be regretted that M. Dunal should have associated the Nolanacee with the Solanacee, from which they differ essentially in the structure of the pistil and the fruit. The Scrophulariacee, Atropacee and Solanaceae, placed as I have suggested under more strictly defined and simple limits, form, together with some other families, a very manifest alliance, exhibiting the prominent cha- racteristics of monopetalous flowers, with a pistillum consisting of-a superior ovarium, a simple style, and a stigma generally entire or 2-lobed; the ovarium by the confluence of its carpels being normally 2-locular, with the cells placed always anteriorly _ and posteriorly in regard to the axis; and whenever the few known exceptions occur of more than two cells, these will be found to arise generally from an unusual extension of the pla- cent, which always proceeding from the centre of the dissepi- ment, produce abnormally other spurious cells. Among the Nolanacee, the only genus that approaches this definition is Grabowskya, all others differing essentially in structure, but even in that genus the resemblance is more apparent than real. In the Nolanacea, the carpels constituting the pistillum are more numerous, and, excepting the case just mentioned, are always free, springing from a fleshy receptacle surrounded by distinct glands, and all receiving their fertilizing influence through the medium of one-common style, that has no direct communication with the ovaria, but always indirectly, through the intermedium of a supporting gynobase, in the same manner as the Borragi- nacee and the Labiate. In Grabowskya, although the two com- ponent carpels are connate, the style apparently issuing from it does not spring from the summit, as in an ordinary pistillum, but may be traced down the axile line of their union to the base, and may be separated from the adherent carpels : the style there- fore, though concealed below by the confluent carpels, is truly of gynobasic insertion. This essential difference in the struc- ture of the pistil renders the union of the Solanacee and Nola- nacee quite indefensible. Another peculiarity is constant in the Nolanacee, in which respect we find no parallel or analogy among the Solanacee: this consists in the fact, that whether the ripened nuts be unilocular or many-celled (the cells in all


4, Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez.

cases being 1-seeded), there is always seen at their basal point of attachment, one or more scars, each closing the entrance mto a corresponding cell, which scar, in every case, represents the end of a kind of plug, evidently analogous to the strophiole (or Calomphala of Schrader), so conspicuous in the nuts of the Bor- raginacee. Another distinction will also be found to exist which has not been noticed by M. Dunal: in the Sol/anacee the extre- mity of the radicle never points immediately to the hilum, but is directed to a spot removed from it, and even where the embryo_ is straight, as in Metternichia, Cestrum, Fabiana, &c. Although the end of the radicle points to the bottom of the seed, the hilum is always lateral or marginal, at some little distance from the base: in Nolanacee, on the contrary, the extremity of the radicle always points to the strophiolar cavity in the base of the nut, and of course to the hilum, or place of its attachment to the gynobase. This forms another essential and constant dif- ference between the two families. There is still one more mate- rial distinction in the structure of the pistillum arising out of the circumstances just mentioned. In the Solanacee, we always meet with numerous ovules in each cell, all attached to the pla- cent springing from the dissepiment ; in the Nolanacee, a single ovule only exists in each cell, and this is constantly erect and of basal origin.

Schlechtendal in 1832 (Linnea, vii. 72) pointed out the ana- logy that exists m the genus Noluna to the families of the Bor- raginacee and Solanaceae, admitting its greater affinity with the former, ou account of the structure of its fruit and the estivation of its corolla; but as a justification for those who might prefer placing it in Solanacee, it was argued by that able botanist, if the genus Lyciuvm, which differs from other genera of this last- mentioned family in the estivation of its corolla (the only ex- ceptional case at that time known), be retained in this order, then there would be less difficulty in admitting Nolana, notwith- standing the very different structure of its fruit. Dr. Lindley, who first proposed this order in 1838, placed it near the Convol- vulacee. G. Don (1837) was I believe the first who decidedly associated the Nolanacee as a tribe of the Solanacee (Dict. iv. 399), but he offered no reasons for this union. Endlicher in his ‘Genera Plantarum’ followed the views of Dr. Lindley, in at- taching this group as a suborder of the Convolvulacee. Brongniart (1843) adopted the same views in regard to the affinity of the Nolanacee. A. de Jussieu (1844, Cours Elémentaire) equally confirmed the ideas of the before-mentioned botanists, in placing the Nolanacee in contiguity with the Dichondrew, between the Borraginacee and Convolvulacee. In 1845 1 adduced many facts and several additional reasons, why the Nolanacee should be placed

Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez. 5

in the system following the Borraginacee (Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. 366), which position was confirmed in the following year under the arrangement given by Prof. Lindley (Veg. Kingd. 654), where this order is placed in his Kchial alliance with the Borra- ginacee, Labiate and others. The views of so experienced a botanist as M. Dunal must ever be received with respect, and will claim support from the mere prestige of his name, as well as from the high reputation of the great work to which he has contributed this important monograph ; but we may be allowed to doubt the propriety of his determination, in placing the Nola- nacee, as a tribe of the Solanacee, without refuting the reasons urged by so many botanists against the justness of this arrange- ment, or offering any arguments in favowr of such an alliance. This classification may have originated in the too eager desire entertained by M. Dunal, in common with many botanists, to diminish as much as possible the number of natural orders, a very proper and meritorious caution, but when carried to excess, as in this instance, is productive of mischief; for by uniting several families into one, which are composed of very opposite and dissimilar characters, we destroy the very object we attempt to establish, viz. to mark the’limits of distinction between differ- ent groups of plants. The selection of a few decided and con- stant characters, that can serve to distinguish each order, tribe or section, must infallibly tend to the greatest simplicity of arrange- ment ; and if in accomplishing this purpose, we should thus be led to increase the number of families, in order to ensure the means of certain-discrimination, it is indubitably better to do so, rather than, by pursuing the opposite extreme, to render all fixed landmarks useless. It was upon this conviction that I proposed (huj. op. ii. 163) to reduce the Scrophulariacee within more cer- tain limits than Mr. Bentham had employed im his admirable monograph of the order in the 10th volume of the Prodromus of M. DeCandolle, and also to confine the Solanacee within strictly definable bounds. The difficulty of establishmg an ob- vious line of demarcation between’ these two great families, was there discussed at some length, when I showed how unsuccessful had been the attempts of botanists to remedy so manifest a de- fect in the system. Mr. Bentham, it is true, adopted with this view, the plan of associating the few aberrant cases then known,

in a distinct tribe, his Salpiglossidee : the heterogeneous features

of that tribe have been fully-demonstrated, proving that the at-

_ tempted remedy has been wholly inefficacious : among the many

instances that could be cited, it is only necessary to point out,

how impossible it is to retain Salpiglussis, Anthocercis, Schwenkia

__and others in Scrophulariacee, while Petunia, Nierembergia, and

numerous others are placed in Solanacee. At the time of Mr. Bentham’s monograph the exceptional genera were few, but

6 Mr. J. Miers on the Sclanaceze.

since that period they have become so multiplied as to equal in number those belonging to true Solanacee. ;

As a desirable test towards the attainment of this great desi- deratum, I suggested the constant character of the zstivation of the corolla, which, combined with other well-selected features, will be found to reduce these two extensive orders within de- finable bounds : for this purpose, it is only requisite to detach from each their several aberrant cases, and comprise these in an intermediate family, where they are easily separable into tribes, distinguishable by marked peculiarities. M. Dunal does not seem to have been aware of this suggestion, or at least, no such expedient appears to have entered into his contemplation ; and his ordinal diagnosis of the Solanacee, aggravated still further by the inclusion of the Nolanacee, is necessarily a combination of contradictory characters, repeating and increasing all the defects of his predecessors.

I will here recapitulate the more essential points suggested on a former occasion, when upon the principle then recommended, the Solanal alliance, excluding entirely the Nolanacee, but in- cluding the Scrophulariacee, will consist of individuals, marked by the leading characters just enumerated (ante, p.3). Among these, the Solanacee will embrace those genera with a monope- talous corolla, having a 5-, rarely 4-partite border, the lobes of which (even under the unusual circumstance of the tube being oblique) are nearly regular and equal, and their margins always valvate or induplicato-valvate in eestivation : epipetalous stamens, alternate with, and equal to the number of the lobes, sometimes unequal in length and size, and the fifth very rarely sterile ; anthers introrse, bursting by longitudinal slits or apical pores ; an ovarium most generally 2-celled, rarely 3- to 5-locular, with a simple style and a 2-lobed or clavate stigma, often hollow ; a fruit either capsular or baccate, 2-locular, rarely more-celled from the increment of the placentz, albuminous seeds with an embryo, in the suborder Curvembryee, always slender, terete, and curved in a more or less annular or spiral form, in the suborder Rectembryee, short and straight, the radicle in all cases pointing, not to the base, but to the basal angle of the seed, and turned away to some short distance from the hilum, which is generally lateral and somewhat marginal, but never basal. They consist of plants, with alternate, often geminate, rarely pimnatifid leaves, with an inflorescence sometimes axillary, but more generally a little extra-axillary, or lateral, either single or fasciculated, or in different modifications of the cyme, panicle or corymb, under a mode of development called centrifugal.

The Scrophulariacee will consist of those genera, possessing a tubular corolla, more or less curved and irregular, with a 4- or 5-partite border, the lobes of which are generally unequal and

Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez: 7

bilabiate, and decidedly imbricate, never valvate, in zestivation ; stamens two or four, didynamous, rarely five, or with a rudi- mentary fifth; anthers always introrse ; an ovarlum most gene- rally bilocular, a simple style, with a stigina more or less bila- biate or 2-lobed ; fruit almost always capsular, in a very few cases baccate, 2-locular, rarely more-celled, bursting in different ways, with placente proceeding from the dissepiment. Seeds albuminous, with an embryo quite straight, or but little curved, generally with the radicle pointed towards a basal hilum: in one solitary instance the embryo is perispherically curved, and in the Rhinanthee, by an abnormal extension of the podosperm ; the hilum appears somewhat lateral. In this very natural family, although the floral leaves are often alternate, the cauline leaves are most generally opposite, a circumstance that occurs only ac- cidentally in Solanacee : the inflorescence is strictly axillary*. The Atropacee will comprise all the anomalous exceptions to the foregomg rules in the Solanacee and Scrophulariacee, and will include plants with monopetalous flowers, with the tube often plicated longitudinally in bud, and a border often some- what unequal, but seldom bilabiate, generally divided into five lobes, which are always either imbricately disposed in estivation, or arranged under some modification between that form and the induplicate, but never valvate, the margins of each lobe being con- stantly free from the adjoining ones: they have generally five epipetalous fertile stamens, alternate with the lobes, one of them sometimes shorter, and very rarely three of them sterile: anthers generally introrse, sometimes extrorse, 2-lobed, usually with par- allel cells bursting longitudinally, one of the lobes being occa- sionally sterile: ovarium 2-locular, rarely, with other spurious cells, caused by the abnormal growth of the placentz, with ovules generally ascending, attached to fleshy placentz adnate to the dissepiment, as in the two preceding families, a simple style, a bilobed stigma, often of a peculiar form: fruit either baccate or capsular : seeds generally reniform and compressed, with a lateral hilum, the embryo placed in albumen, and either straight or more or less curved, sometimes spiral, with the radicle, as in the Solanacee, always turned away from the more lateral hilum. Herbaceous plants or shrubs, with a habit similar to that of the Solanacee, with alternate, simple, geminate, or fasciculate leaves :

* The efficacy of this test may be applied to Verbascum, a genus of the Scrophulariacee, which offers so many anomalous characters, as to have induced many botanists to place it in Solanacee. On a former occasion I discussed this subject at some length (huj. op. iii. 181), when reasons were shown why a preponderance tended towards its position among the Scro- phulariacee as determined by Mr. Bentham: to these I may now add the fact of the structure of the seed, in which the radicle of its straight embryo is directed towards its basal hilum.

8 Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez.

inflorescence generally somewhat extra-axillary, and lateral in regard to the insertion of the petiole.

The distribution of the Solanacee and of the Atropacee, as proposed in this work (hw). op. iii. 164-178), like every first at- tempt of the kind, is sure to present many faults that will admit of correction, but it appears deserving of the attention of bota- nists as a general plan: it certainly effects the great desideratum of removing the obstacles that have always stood in the way of a satisfactory arrangement of the Solanal alliance, and it sepa- rates the genera into very natural groups, which we do not meet with in the system adopted by M. Dunal. Some observations on the peculiar features of cach of these groups will be found m the pages referred to.

I now proceed to review in succession the value of the cha- racters selected as the discriminating marks of the subtribes, in the arrangement followed by M. Dunal. There does not appear to me sufficient reason for separating the genus Triguera as a sub- tribe distinct from the Solanee. It is certainly a well-marked genus, possessing prominent characters, and differs only from the other genera of the latter subtribe in the slightly oblique form of its bell-shaped corolla ; but, like others of the So/anea, its border has five equal and regular lobes, and agrees with them in wstivation ; it has also five equal stamens, supported on a ring, as in Cyphomandra, but this ring is more free from the tube of the corolla ; its anthers open by apical pores, as well as by lateral slits, as in some sections of Solanum; in the structure of the ovarium, its style and stigma, in its fruit, its placentation, its seed, and its embryo, there is nothing different from what we frequently meet with in Solanum itself. M. Dunal, on the author- ity of Cavanilles, states the fruit to be 4-locular, each cell pro- ducing only two seeds, which are superimposed. I found the fruit to be distinctly 2-locular, being divided by a single mem- branaceous dissepiment, with two or three seeds in each cell, fixed, as in Solanum, to fleshy placentee adnate to the dissepiment. The seeds are reniform, compressed, large in proportion to the size of the fruit; but their paucity in each cell is a test of no value, for I found in Withania only a solitary seed perfected in each cell. There is not therefore a single character in Triguera, except the small obliquity of the tube of the corolla, that is not met with in other genera of the Solanee*.

Among the subtribes Solanee and Atropinee of M. Dunal, we

* J have observed in several other cases an equal degree of obliquity in the corolla. Among these may be instanced Hyoscyamus pictus, where it is quite as oblique and gibbous as in Triguera: the same fact is depicted in the plate given of Hyoscyamus niger, in Nees’s Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ. figs. 5, 6 and 7.

Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez. 9

find genera placed heterogeneously together, without regard to uniformity of character, and totally irrespective of the most im- portant feature of estivation. Thus, among the Solanee, which possess a valvate zestivation, is placed the genus Nicandra, with a corolla resembling that of a Convolvulus, the lobes of its border possessing a decidedly imbricated <stivation. The want of at- tention to this last-mentioned important character has, in the same manner, led to the confused association of several genuine sections: thus, among the Aéropinee, we find the very natural group of the Jaborosee, distmguished by a tubular corolla, which in most cases grows black in drying, always possessing a valvate zestivation and other very distinct characters, classed with Atropa and Mandragora, genera quite different from-them and each other, and possessing a remarkably imbricate zstivation. Thus also in the Lycinee, there is an equal amount of complication, for we see Dunalia, Iochroma, Pecilochroma, Acnistus, and cthers with valvate <stivation, associated with several distinct groups that possess an imbricated estivation: among these we find Juanulloa, Solandra, &c.,.and also Marckea, Thinogeton, &c., and all these again congregated with Lycium—groups perfectly di- stinet from one another. We meet with Juanulloa and Marckea, having almost a straight embryo, placed among a number of genera having a nearly annular embryo.

- The genus Thinogeton, arranged by M. Dunal among his Ly- cine, is said to be closely allied to Jaborosa, Himeranthus, Dory- stigma and Trechonetes, genera which he has singularly placed among his Atropinee. This distinguished botanist can never have seen a specimen or drawing of Thinogeton, or he would never have ventured on such a conclusion : its affinity, as [ have elsewhere shown, is toward Scopolia, Physochlena and Cacabus, genera that I have placed with Hyoscyamus, on account of their many uniform characters, particularly that of the operculiform dehiscence of their fruit.

In M. Dunal’s tribe of the Daturea, we meet with a similar degree of irregularity, in the association of perfectly incompatible genera. Thus Dictyocalyx is placed here, while Thinogeton is arranged among the Lycinee, and yet these two genera are identically the same. . This genus with a spiral embryo, and Datura with a nearly annular embryo, are associated with So- landra, where the embryo is nearly straight or but slightly

_ eurved ; in this respect M. Dunal has followed the example of _ older botanists, who, for no other reason that we can imagine,

drew this conclusion, because in former times Solandra grandi-

re flora was the Datura scandens of Plumier. Solandra is as totally

distinct in habit from Datura as it is in structure ; it is a climb- ing plant, with large coriaceous leaves and orange-coloured

10 Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez.

flowers of large size, with a thick fleshy corolla, having a ven- tricose funnel-shaped tube, and a border of five large fleshy lobes, which in estivation are so deeply imbricated that they com- pletely overlap one another. In Datura, on the contrary, the corolla is white or of a lurid blue, with a nearly entire or pen- tangular border ; this in estivation is plicated into five deep folds, which almost meet in the axis, and these folds are torsively and spirally twisted round the common centre, having their margins thus valvately coherent in juxtaposition: no two cases of more extreme difference could have been selected. On account of the very dissimilar estivation of the corolla and other distinct features, the separation of Solandra viridiflora from this genus, as pro- posed by me under the name of Dyssochroma, has been acknow- ledged by M. A. DeCandolle in the Appendix (Prod. xin. 689), although they are combined together in the body of the work. Ectozoma also, having a corolla with an imbricated estivation, and which I have shown to be.allied to Juanulloa, is also placed among the Daturee, but for what reason is not explained : it has not the smallest relation with Datura. I shall in a separate memoir conclude the remarks I have to make on Datura and the genera allied to it, which I consider distinct, but which M. Dunal regards as mere sectional divisions of that genus.

Many objections may be made to M. Dunal’s subtribe of Hyoscyamea, formed only of the genera Hyoseyamus and Sco- polia: this subtribe I have excluded from true Solanacee on ac- count of the decided estivation of the corolla. In the generic character of Hyoscyamus, this feature is represented as being plicated, not imbricated, and the description of the mode of pla- centation is quite at variance with my own observation ; indeed the entire generic character given in the Prodromus’ (p. 546), is a copy, verbatim, from the text of Dr. Putterlich in Nees’s Gen. Pl. Flor. Germ.’ On a former occasion (huyj. op. v. 468) I showed that this description does not accord with the very clear and analytical details exhibited in the accompanying plate: the wstivation of the border, said to be plicate, is distinctly deli- neated as being quincuncially imbricate in figs. 3. and 21, and there is no indication of any plicature of the border in any of the other several figures of the corolla: the placentz are stated in the text of that work, and of the Prodromus,’ to be inserted on the dissepiment by a linear dorsal line, while the figures 19. and 28. exhibit broad lunated placentz projecting into the cell, con- nected with a short membrane that emanates from the axis of the dissepiment: I find neither of these statements to accord with what I have seen in Hyoscyamus pictus, of which species I

~ have examined scores of ovaria and capsules, in a living state, where I have invariably found the placente to be thick and

Mr. J. Miers on the Solanacez. 11

fleshy, and completely adnate to the dissepiment. I have also, in the work above referred to, directed attention to the striking, fleshy, epigynous gland, which has been quite unnoticed by pre- ceding observers, and it is singular that so remarkable a feature should have been omitted in the Prodromus.’? The genus Sco- polia, as enlarged by M. Dunal, is divided into four sections, Datora, Physochlena, Anisodus and Scopolia, groups which ap- pear to me all generically distinct. Datora evidently belongs to Hyoscyamus rather than to this genus. In Scopolia, judging from the plants I have seen growing in Kew Gardens, the inflo- rescence is always solitary, a single flower upon a long slender peduncle springmg from between the two petioles of the gemi- nate leaves of each distant axillary node of the main stem, and this feature is confirmed in the description of the same species by M. Dunal (Prodr. p. 556). Dr. Putterlich, however, in stating the flowers to be solitary and pseudo-axillary, adds that in reality it is terminal, from the centrifugal evolution of its 2—-3-choto- mous stem; I confess that I have been unable to distinguish this character : its calyx is urceolate, membranaceous, and re- gularly 5-toothed : the corolla has a somewhat broad, bell-shaped, almost cylindrical tube, with five very short erect lobes; and although the tube is plicated, the lobes are distinctly imbricated in estivation: this last feature is acknowledged by Dr. Putter- lich, but unnoticed by M. Dunal: the ovarium, at its base, is imbedded in an adnate, fleshy, 5-lobed disk,